- X-Ray Interpretation Training Course
- Course Outline
has been developed to meet the security requirements of government and industry in
providing enhanced security screening for Weapons, Bombs, and Explosive Devices
(IED). The course is a complete training program to screen, detect, and manage a
government or corporate security X-Ray screening program.
- Recent Domestic and International Bomb Incidents
- Weapons, Bombs and Improvised Explosive Devices
- X-Ray Radiation and Radiation Safety
- Operation of the X-Ray Machine
- Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's)
- Bomb Recognition Points
- X-Ray Interpretation
- Suspicious Article Procedures
THE X-RAY SCREENER TEST
This (8-hour) course is modeled after U. S. Government X-Ray screening programs.
Each student will be required to properly identify a group of articles as suspicious or not suspicious with 100% proficiency to achieve certification. Each student will be provided with a student workbook.
An annual refresher course is available for all graduates of the course.
Web based proficiency / refresher training is now available via e-screen
to all registered students.
- Course Objectives
Students undergo a series rigorous practical hands-on exercises to detect
Weapons, Bombs and Improvised Terrorist Explosive Devices using the X-Ray machine. The course curriculum is comprised of approximately 30 % Classroom Lecture and 70% hands on practical training.
- Upon successful completion of the course, students will be capable of screening and detecting suspicious
articles. Students will be able to apply systematic
techniques and strategies for the safe handling of a suspicious
article. The course is designed to enhance any organization's security
- Why does my organization need X-Ray Interpretation
The last decade has brought many changes and challenges
to the field of security X-Ray Interpretation. One of the greatest changes has
been the increased use of Bombs or Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) for everything from gaining attention,
to extortion and revenge.
Two thousand two hundred and seventeen (2,217) bombing
incidents were reported to the FBI's Bomb Data Center
(BDC) in 1997. Deaths from
bombings numbered eighteen (18) in 1997. Bombs also injured
Damage in 1997 from bombs was approximately 9 million dollars.
That is an increase from the 5 million
in monetary damages reported for 1996. X-Ray screening equipment operated
by properly trained personnel is the best defense in detection of suspicious
articles. Without proper training and the understanding of what
the X-Ray image is displaying, even the most advanced X-Ray equipment may as well be unplugged.
Probably the most attractive aspect of the
Bomb or IED is the ability of the terrorist to remain, for the most part, anonymous. The capabilities of even some of the smaller letter bombs can be devastating when experienced in close proximity. Early detection
through X-Ray screening and interpretation of such a device gives you the best chance of discovering
When using an X-Ray machine, even the simplest of articles may appear to be a jumble
components or unintelligible shapes. That's why continuous training
and practice are so important to an effective X-Ray screening program.
- Never Forget!
The most important decision you have to make when analyzing an X-Ray Image is whether
an article is "suspicious" or "not suspicious."
This is not to oversimplify that decision, because it is an important one that can have severe repercussions.
The final decision as to whether or not an article is "hazardous" or "not hazardous" is only
made by qualified bomb technicians.
- What is X-Ray Interpretation?
X-Ray Interpretation is the analysis of the output from
X-Ray equipment. The output can be a simple black and white image, a
density based pseudo color, or an organic-inorganic color image. There are several things you must be able to identify when looking at an X-Ray image of an
article. Any one of these things alone is not cause for suspicion, but an
Bomb or IED contains certain components that must be present. You should know
all of these components and examine articles, packages and letters with them in mind. There are items that will require several exposures at different angles to determine their identity.
- Some components
to look for in a X-Ray Image
- Power Supply
These will usually be displayed as lighter areas, depending on the type of output of your machine, and with few exceptions will look much like themselves.
Terrorist Bomb designers may overpower a device with additional batteries.
A indicator for a Bomb may be too many batteries for the item on the screen, or batteries that are not wired together with the same craftsmanship as the rest of the device. A pocket calculator should not have four "D" cell batteries.
Most initiators are made of aluminum or glass that, due to their relative lack of density, can be difficult to detect. It is not necessary for a blasting cap to be electrically initiated. However, a non-electrically initiated blasting cap may have a time fuze attached to it, or a striker-primer assembly, or a mechanical mechanism to mix reactive chemicals when a package or letter is opened or moved.
Explosives will generally be displayed as a light or dark
color depending on the machine's capabilities. Paper, either in bulk or book form, has a similar presentation to explosive.
If you open a package that contains only a book, that does not present a problem. It's the explosive that is shaped like a book that presents a problem. Explosives can be solid, liquid or gas.
A switch can be made from most any available material. The compromising factor of this component will be "does a switch of this type belong in this item?" A paperback novel should not have a
micro-switch behind the cover. "Is this lunch pail supposed to have a toggle switch inside it?" These are questions that you must ask yourself. Are there any
electrical, electronic, or mechanical switches that should not be present?
Are random bundles of wire strewn about the
article? Is the quality of the wiring consistent with the quality of the item? Is there an excessive amount of wiring for the size of the
articale? Are there protruding wires?
Explotech Ltd. Co. has developed a number of Counter-Terrorism and Security Training Courses to provide government and industry customers with the most comprehensive training available. This state-of-the-art combination of the finest techniques and hands on training provides the highest level of confidence in protection of high risk assets. Explotech instructors have and average of twenty years of domestic and international operational experience in explosive security operations.
- Explotech Ltd. Co. provides training in a broad scope of security, explosives, counter-terrorism
- activities, and provides explosive related engineering services to a variety of clients.
- us below for additional information about Explotech
and a complete listing of capabilities and clients.
Course Cost & Other Information
Course Brochure (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)
- Training is scheduled for several times during the year. We have courses scheduled for
March, June, September and
December 2003 in Houston Texas.
Students can bring their
X-Ray Equipment with them or make arrangements with us to provide equipment.
- Training is available on
portable film based, real time and cabinet type X-Ray systems. Training is
conducted at clients' sites. We can tailor training to the organizations
cost of the one day course, conducted on a client's site, is approximately
$2800.00 for up to
8 students in the USA. This includes instructor fee &
travel expenses. Costs may be higher in
some areas during certain times of the
year. Overseas training is available. Please contact us below for a specific training quote.
- To contact us with any questions regarding this training, use the numbers listed below.
If you are interested in attending the next available course,
use the form below.
- Explotech Ltd Co
- Post Office Box 272372
- Houston, Texas 77277-2372 USA
- Tel: 800-850-XRAY (9729)
- Fax: 225-612-4806
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Explotech Ltd. Co. All rights reserved.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Other products and companies referred to herein are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies or mark holders.